Authentication and Authorization

Authentication and Authorization are two terms which you may have come across while logging into a system. Even though they appear to be similar but in real terms they are actually very different!

Authentication is the first step which occurs when you try to log into a system. The System tries to verify your Identity and make sure that you are the right person to access the system. This is done by asking the user to enter their credentials. In case for some websites, along with entering your credentials, you are also asked to fill out a CAPTCHA sequence to make sure that you are not a machine. These systems have become more sophisticated and now Include Identifying pictures. For Example, it would give you a series of pictures and ask you to Identify the ones which has a beach. Once it makes sure you are the right person, you would be able to access the system.

Authorization is a step which comes after Authentication. It basically determines what are you supposed to do once you login. For Example if there are some confidential files in the server, you might not be authorized to access or modify those documents. It is basically a set of rights which are given to a user.

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Email Address Validator

Have you ever encountered situations where you tried sending an Email to a particular email address and it bounces back? Before you come to a conclusion that it might be an Issue with your Mailbox server, check whether the email address of the person is actually valid. There are many free sites which would allow you to do this. Here are some of them

http://verifalia.com/validate-email

http://validateemailaddress.org/

Routers with usb

Most of the premium routers now days have a USB port with it. Now you may wonder what is the significance of having a USB port?

A USB port is very useful in case you want to share data across the network. So in case one wants to share Information across to a group of people connected to the same WiFi network, he/she can easily do so by Inserting the USB in the USB port.

Another common use is to connect the USB port to a printer. So anyone in the network can print documents.

Normally routers have more than one usb port. They have a USB 3.0 port and USB 2.0 port. This extends the possibilities of what you would like to achieve.

Router Interference 

Router Interference 


There may be times when you try to setup a new router and you happen to have the old router which is connected nearby. Once the router is setup, one would get a default SSID  name displayed on the list of available WIFI connections.

But what if you want to customize the SSID name? For a Netgear router, one would have to goto this site https://routerlogin.net . This would take you to the Netgear Dashboard for your router. From here you could goto the Wireless settings page where you can change the default SSID name and password to the one that you want and then update it.

But here is the catch, once you try updating it for some reason you would find that both the routers have the same SSID and password! This could happen since both the routers are kept close to each other.

If that happens then you would have to reconfigure the network name for one of the routers. While doing so make sure that  you turn the other router off before you start reading configuring the router. That is very important, if you don’t happen to follow that then it might lead to another interference.

The Antennas of Routers and speed don’t go hand in hand

Most of the routers in the market today have the latest WiFi standard which is 802.11ac. This standard offers higher speeds compared to the previous standard. With the latest version, the support for Antennas on routers goes up to 8! Even though the highest number of Antennas installed so far on a router are only 6.

Many people have this misconception that higher the number of Antennas on a router, the greater the speed. This is not true. There is no correlation between speed and the number of Antennas.

Antennas improve the range of your router and it also aides in handling a larger number of devices. So basically if you have a large house and the requirement is that you need good wifi coverage a cross all rooms then one should go for a router with a larger number of Antennas.

Printer-Word Documents not accepted

You might find yourself printing a word document and printing it. Suppose your printer only accepts flash drives, you might observe that the file which you had just saved in your drive is missing. Or in other words the printer cannot locate or recognize your word file.

In this case either your flash drive is not operating correctly or it might be something else. For the first case you could check by reformatting your drive and then Inserting it. If that doesn’t work, then try converting your Word file into PDF.  Versions of Microsoft Word from 2013 onwards give you the functionality of easily saving your document as a PDF. Now save this PDF in your flash drive and try printing it. You would see that the printer now recognizes this file which happens to be a PDF document and it is printing it.

So the bottom line is that there are some printers which don’t print Word files and the only solution is to convert it to a PDF document.

Windows-Set as Default Communication Device

While playing around with the Audio properties of your devices you might have come across two similar looking options-

  • Set as Default Device 
  • Set as Default Communication Device

Screenshot (10).png

Set as Default Device refers to making the Device as a default playback device for Audio. And then the corresponding option Set as Default Communication Device  refers to making the device available for communication. It should respond when one opens a Skpe Application.

This option is particularly important. There are times when you connect your laptop to your external monitor and use your headphones for listening. In some cases your laptop might assign the external monitor as a default communication device even though you have connected your headphone. And above all that, the monitor might not even have external speakers! So it becomes an Issue when you are in a Skype Conference and you find that people can hear you but you cannot hear them because the laptop has assigned the monitor as a default communication device.

The tip here is that before you begin your Skype meeting, check your audio settings and ensure that the primary device you are going to use for communication-maybe your headphone is set as the Default Communication Device . 

In order to access the Audio Settings follow these steps-

  1. On the Windows Taskbar right click on the Audio icon
  2.  Select Playback devices Screenshot (12).png
  3. Then right click on the Device you want to set as the Default Communication Device.