Lists are a common data structure used in SharePoint. It is used for storing data. In order to store data in a List one would have to create a Custom List. The list comprises of columns and you can basically choose the data type each column in the list should contain.
One can edit a list at any point of time. You can Insert pictures in the column of a list. While adding a picture it would Initially appear as a link but once you save it you would be able to see the picture.
You can create different views for a list. Suppose we have a list that contains a list of students and the marks obtained by them in a subject out of 100. We can create a view which would display all the students whose marks are greater than 80. Once we create the view we can still go back to the original list.
The view can be used in a SharePoint Web part and it can be displayed on a page. It has got lot of other features and functionalities which can only be explored by playing around them.